ISSN 2146-8389
 

Original Research (Original Article) 


Thyroid function and oxidative stress indices in type 2 diabetics

Augusta C. Nsonwu-Anyanwu, Edmund R. Egbe, Sunday J. Offor, Chinyere A. O. Usoro, Chinonyerem V. Alago, Divinegift O. Ebiese.

Abstract
Objectives: This study assessed the levels of triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total plasma peroxides (TPP) and oxidative stress index (OSI) in type 2 diabetics and in different states of metabolic control to determine the possible relationship between oxidative stress, thyroid function and poor metabolic control.
Methods: Ninety consenting subjects aged 40 to 65 years comprising of 50 type 2 diabetics and 40 non-diabetic volunteers in Calabar, Nigeria were recruited into this case control study. Their fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), T3, TSH, TPP, TAC and OSI were determined using colorimetric methods. Anthropometric indices and socio-demographic information were obtained by standard methods.
Results: The body mass index, FPG, HbA1c, TPP, and OSI were found to be significantly higher and TAC lower in type 2 diabetics compared to the non-diabetic controls. The FPG, T3, TSH, TPP, TAC and OSI of diabetics with poor glycemic control do not differ from those with good glycemic control. T3 correlated positively with the duration of diabetes while TAC negatively correlated with TPP and OSI in type 2 diabetics.
Conclusion: Irrespective of the metabolic control state, type 2 diabetes seems to be associated with increased oxidative stress indices which may not be related with changes in T3 and TSH levels.

Key words: Diabetes, glycemic control, thyroid function


 
ARTICLE TOOLS
Abstract
PDF Fulltext
Print this article Print this Article
How to cite this articleHow to cite this article
Export to
Export to
Related Records
 Articles by Augusta C. Nsonwu-Anyanwu
Articles by Edmund R. Egbe
Articles by Sunday J. Offor
Articles by Chinyere A. O. Usoro
Articles by Chinonyerem V. Alago
Articles by Divinegift O. Ebiese
on Google
on Google Scholar
Article Statistics
 Viewed: 743
Downloaded: 154
Cited: 0

REFERENCES
1. Begum HA, Islam KS, Hossen MR, Monirujjaman M, Ahmed S. Cooccurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and thyroid metabolic disorders in Bangladeshi population. Sch J App Med Sci 2014; 2:605-12.
2. Igawa T, Nakabayashi H, Takeda R, Kurata Y. A possible common cell surface auto antigen in islet beta cells and thyroid follicular cells in patients with non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and chronic thyroiditis. Endocr J1996; 43:299-306.
3. Pasupathi P, Chandrasekar V, Kumar US. Evaluation of oxidative stress, antioxidant and thyroid hormone status in patients with diabetes mellitus. J Medicine 2009; 10:60-6. [DOI via Crossref]   
4. Tangvarasittichai S. Oxidative stress, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. World J Diabetes 2015; 6:456-80. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
5. Bukhari SA, Naqvi SAR, Nagra SA, Anjum F, Javed S, Farooq M. Assessing of oxidative stress related parameters in diabetes mellitus type 2: cause excessive damaging to DNA and enhanced homocysteine in diabetic patients. Pak J Pharm Sci 2015; 28:483-91.
6. Wang C. The relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus and related thyroid diseases. J Diabetes Res 2013, 2013:390534.
7. Donckier JE. Endocrine diseases and diabetes. In: Pickup JC, Williams G (eds) Textbook of Diabetes, Blackwell Publishing, volume 27, pp 21-27, Chichester, UK, 2003.
8. Fernandez V, Llesuy S, Solari L, Kipreos K, Videla LA, Boveris A. Chemiluminescent and respiratory responses related to thyroid hormone-induced liver oxidative stress. Free Radic Res Commun 1988; 5:77-84. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
9. Asayama K, Dobashi K, Hayashibe H, Megata Y, Kato K. Lipid peroxidation and free radical scavengers in thyroid dysfunction in the rat: a possible mechanism of injury to heart and skeletal muscle in hyperthyroidism. Endocrinology 1987; 121:2112-8. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
10. Swaroop A, Ramasarma T. Heat exposure and hypothyroid conditions decrease hydrogen peroxide generation in liver mitochondria. Biochem J 1985; 226:403-8. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
11. Definition, Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus and its Complications. World Health Organization, Department of Noncommunicable Disease Surveillance, Geneva, 1999.
12. Obesity; Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic. World Health Organization Technical Report Series 2000; 894:i-xxi.
13. American Diabetes Association (ADA). Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Diabetes Care 2014; 37):S14-80.
14. Barham D, Trinder P. An improved colour reagent for the determination of blood glucose by the oxidase system. Analyst 1972; 97:142-5. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
15.Trivelli LA, Ranney PH, Lai HT. Hemoglobin components in patients with diabetes mellitus. New Engl J Med 1971; 284:353-7. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
16. Utiger RD. Serum triiodothyronine in man. Ann Rev Med 1974; 25:289-302. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
17. Engvall E. Enzyme immunoassay ELISA and EMIT. Methods Enzymol 1980; 70:419-39. [DOI via Crossref]   
18. Koracevic D, Koracevic G, Djordjevic V, Andrejevic S, Cosic V. Method for the measurement of antioxidant activity in human fluids. J Clin Pathol 2001; 54:356-61. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
19. Miyazawa T. Determination of phospholipid hydroperoxides in human blood plasma by a chemiluminescence-HPLC assay. Free Radic Biol Med 1989; 7:209-17. [DOI via Crossref]   
20. Nsonwu-Anyanwu AC, Egbe ER, Offor JS, Usoro CAO. Glycemic control, micronutrients and some metabolic enzyme activity in type 2 diabetes. Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3:2757-64. [DOI via Crossref]   
21. Stanaway SE, Gill GV. Protein glycosylation in diabetes mellitus biochemical and clinical considerations. Pract Diab Int 2000; 17:21-5. [DOI via Crossref]   
22. Patel V, Kanani D, Chauhan K, Haridas N, Makadia M, Patel V. Assessment of oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus by measurement of plasma lipid hydroperoxides and total antioxidant capacity. Int J Adv Res 2015; 3(5):1078-84.
23. El Erian A, Anis M, Ibrahim H. Oxidative stress markers as early predictors of neuropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. Nat Sci 2015; 13:120-6.
24. Sies H. Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants. Exp Physiol 1997; 82:291-5. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
25. Akinosun OM, Bolajoko EB. Total antioxidant status in type 2 diabetic patients: experience at the University College Hospital Ibadan. Niger J Clin Pract 2007; 10:126-9.
26. Kar K, Sinha S. Evaluation of protein oxidation and its association with total oxidants and antioxidants among type 2 diabetics in Asians. J Diabetol February 2015; 1:4.
27. Bolajoko EB1, Mossanda KS, Adeniyi F, Akinosun O, Fasanmade A, Moropane M. Antioxidant and oxidative stress status in type 2 diabetes and diabetic foot ulcer. S Afr Med J 2008; 98:614-7.
28. Kopprasch S, Srirangan D, Bergmann S, Graessler J, Schwarz PE, Bornstein SR. Association between systemic oxidative stress and insulinresistance/sensitivity indices - the PREDIAS study. Clinical Endocrinol (Oxf) 2016; 84:48-54. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
29. Santini SA, Giardina MG. Defective plasma antioxidant defenses and enhanced susceptibility to lipid perioxidation in uncomplicated IDDM. Diabetes 1997; 46:1853-8. [DOI via Crossref]   
30. Nourooz-Zadeh J, Tajaddini-Sarmadi J, McCarthy S, Betteridge JD, Wolff SP. Elevated levels of authentic plasma hydroperoxides in NIDDM. Diabetes 1995; 44:1054-8. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
31. Ajayama K, Uchida N, Nakane E. Antioxidants in the serum of children with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Free Radic Biol Med 1993; 15:597-602. [DOI via Crossref]   
32. Hage M, Zantout MS, Azar ST. Thyroid disorders and diabetes mellitus. J Thyroid Res 2011; 2011:439463. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]    [PMC Free Fulltext]   
33. Ramesh V, Geetha R, Anitha D, Swamy NRVK, Panneerselvam TT. The study of thyroid dysfunction among type 2 diabetic patients. IJCRAR 2015; 3:14-8.
34. Arner P, Bounder J, Wennlund A, Ostman J. Influence of thyroid hormone level on insulin action in human adipose tissue. Diabetes 1984; 33:369-75. [DOI via Crossref]    [Pubmed]   
35. Suzuki J, Nanno M, Gemma R, Tanaka I, Taminato T, Yoshimi T. The mechanism of thyroid hormone abnormalities in patients with diabetes mellitus. Nippon Naibunpi Gakki Zasshi 1994; 70:465-70. [DOI via Crossref]   

How to Cite this Article
Pubmed Style

Nsonwu-Anyanwu AC, Egbe ER, Offor SJ, Usoro CAO, Alago CV, Ebiese DO. Thyroid function and oxidative stress indices in type 2 diabetics. Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2016; 5(2): 56-62. doi:10.5455/oams.290616.or.098


Web Style

Nsonwu-Anyanwu AC, Egbe ER, Offor SJ, Usoro CAO, Alago CV, Ebiese DO. Thyroid function and oxidative stress indices in type 2 diabetics. http://www.ejmoams.com/?mno=225201 [Access: May 22, 2018]. doi:10.5455/oams.290616.or.098


AMA (American Medical Association) Style

Nsonwu-Anyanwu AC, Egbe ER, Offor SJ, Usoro CAO, Alago CV, Ebiese DO. Thyroid function and oxidative stress indices in type 2 diabetics. Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2016; 5(2): 56-62. doi:10.5455/oams.290616.or.098



Vancouver/ICMJE Style

Nsonwu-Anyanwu AC, Egbe ER, Offor SJ, Usoro CAO, Alago CV, Ebiese DO. Thyroid function and oxidative stress indices in type 2 diabetics. Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. (2016), [cited May 22, 2018]; 5(2): 56-62. doi:10.5455/oams.290616.or.098



Harvard Style

Nsonwu-Anyanwu, A. C., Egbe, E. R., Offor, S. J., Usoro, C. A. O., Alago, C. V. & Ebiese, D. O. (2016) Thyroid function and oxidative stress indices in type 2 diabetics. Oxid Antioxid Med Sci, 5 (2), 56-62. doi:10.5455/oams.290616.or.098



Turabian Style

Nsonwu-Anyanwu, Augusta C., Edmund R. Egbe, Sunday J. Offor, Chinyere A. O. Usoro, Chinonyerem V. Alago, and Divinegift O. Ebiese. 2016. Thyroid function and oxidative stress indices in type 2 diabetics. Oxidants and Antioxidants in Medical Science, 5 (2), 56-62. doi:10.5455/oams.290616.or.098



Chicago Style

Nsonwu-Anyanwu, Augusta C., Edmund R. Egbe, Sunday J. Offor, Chinyere A. O. Usoro, Chinonyerem V. Alago, and Divinegift O. Ebiese. "Thyroid function and oxidative stress indices in type 2 diabetics." Oxidants and Antioxidants in Medical Science 5 (2016), 56-62. doi:10.5455/oams.290616.or.098



MLA (The Modern Language Association) Style

Nsonwu-Anyanwu, Augusta C., Edmund R. Egbe, Sunday J. Offor, Chinyere A. O. Usoro, Chinonyerem V. Alago, and Divinegift O. Ebiese. "Thyroid function and oxidative stress indices in type 2 diabetics." Oxidants and Antioxidants in Medical Science 5.2 (2016), 56-62. Print. doi:10.5455/oams.290616.or.098



APA (American Psychological Association) Style

Nsonwu-Anyanwu, A. C., Egbe, E. R., Offor, S. J., Usoro, C. A. O., Alago, C. V. & Ebiese, D. O. (2016) Thyroid function and oxidative stress indices in type 2 diabetics. Oxidants and Antioxidants in Medical Science, 5 (2), 56-62. doi:10.5455/oams.290616.or.098





Most Viewed Articles
  • Low intensity radiofrequency radiation: a new oxidant for living cells
    Igor Yakymenko, Evgeniy Sidorik, Diane Henshel, Sergiy Kyrylenko
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2014; 3(1): 1-3
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.240314.ed.002

  • Oxidants and antioxidants: friends or foes?
    Sukru Oter, Si Jin, Luca Cucullo, H.J. Damien Dorman
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2012; 1(1): 1-4
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.080612.ed.001

  • Effects of free radicals and antioxidants on exercise performance
    Sikiru Lamina, Charles I. Ezema, Anele I. Theresa, Ezugwu U. Anthonia
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2013; 2(2): 83-91
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.010413.rv.005

  • Effects of silymarin, N-acetylcysteine and selenium in the treatment of papulopustular acne
    Haidar Hamid Al-Anbari, Ahmed Salih Sahib, Ahmed R. Abu Raghif
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2012; 1(3): 201-207
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.290912.or.019

  • Anticancer and free radical scavenging potency of Catharanthus roseus, Dendrophthoe petandra, Piper betle and Curcuma mangga extracts in breast cancer cell lines
    Wahyu Widowati, Tjandrawati Mozef, Chandra Risdian, Yellianty Yellianty
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2013; 2(2): 137-142
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.100413.or.038

  • Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of marine actinomycetes Streptomyces sp VITSTK7
    Mohankumar Thenmozhi, Krishnan Kannabiran
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2012; 1(1): 51-57
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.270412.or.005

  • Is it oxidative or free radical stress and why does it matter?
    Boguslaw Lipinski
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2012; 1(1): 5-9
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.130312.rv.001

  • Chemical properties of Monodora myristica and its protective potentials against free radicals in vitro
    Ochuko L. Erukainure, Oluwatoyin V. Oke, Folashade O. Owolabi, Funmi O. Kayode, Emmanuel E. Umanhonlen, Muhammad Aliyu
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2012; 1(2): 127-132
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.080712.or.009

  • Cytotoxic and proapoptotic activities of gallic acid to human oral cancer HSC-2 cells
    Alyssa G. Schuck, Jeffrey H. Weisburg, Hannah Esan, Esther F. Robin, Ayelet R. Bersson, Jordana R. Weitschner, Tova Lahasky, Harriet L. Zuckerbraun, Harvey Babich
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2013; 2(4): 265-274
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.220713.or.051

  • Phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of the methanolic extract of fruits of Blighia sapida, Vitellaria paradoxa and Vitex doniana
    Rabiat U. Hamzah, Evans C. Egwim, Adamu Y. Kabiru, Mary B. Muazu
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2013; 2(3): 217-223
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.090513.or.043

  • Most Downloaded
  • Low intensity radiofrequency radiation: a new oxidant for living cells
    Igor Yakymenko, Evgeniy Sidorik, Diane Henshel, Sergiy Kyrylenko
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2014; 3(1): 1-3
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.240314.ed.002

  • Oxidants and antioxidants: friends or foes?
    Sukru Oter, Si Jin, Luca Cucullo, H.J. Damien Dorman
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2012; 1(1): 1-4
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.080612.ed.001

  • The antioxidant capacity and immunomodulatory activity of stingless bee honeys proceeding from Costa Rica
    Gabriel Zamora, Kees Beukelman, Bert van den Berg, Maria Laura Arias, Eduardo Umana, Ingrid Aguilar, Linda Quarles van Ufford, Edwin van den Worm, Natalia Fallas, Rebeca Solorzano
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2015; 4(1): 49-55
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.180415.or.084

  • Is it oxidative or free radical stress and why does it matter?
    Boguslaw Lipinski
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2012; 1(1): 5-9
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.130312.rv.001

  • Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of marine actinomycetes Streptomyces sp VITSTK7
    Mohankumar Thenmozhi, Krishnan Kannabiran
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2012; 1(1): 51-57
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.270412.or.005

  • Anticancer and free radical scavenging potency of Catharanthus roseus, Dendrophthoe petandra, Piper betle and Curcuma mangga extracts in breast cancer cell lines
    Wahyu Widowati, Tjandrawati Mozef, Chandra Risdian, Yellianty Yellianty
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2013; 2(2): 137-142
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.100413.or.038

  • Effects of free radicals and antioxidants on exercise performance
    Sikiru Lamina, Charles I. Ezema, Anele I. Theresa, Ezugwu U. Anthonia
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2013; 2(2): 83-91
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.010413.rv.005

  • Protective properties of complex of quercetin, selenium, catechins and curcumin against DNA damage
    Jana Kadrabova, Marica Krajcovicova-Kudlackova, Alexander Madaric, Martina Valachovicova, Csilla Mislanova, Maria Korenovska
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2012; 1(3): 179-184
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.180912.or.018

  • Airway antioxidant capacity and pH in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
    Wei Lee, Hsien Loo, Paul S. Thomas
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2012; 1(3): 153-160
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.300812.or.016

  • Heparin or EDTA; anticoagulant of choice in free radical estimation?
    Kuldeep Mohanty, Swetasmita Mishra, Jhumur Pani, Tarannum Hasan, Abhishek Purohit, Subhadra Sharma, Rima Dada
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2012; 1(1): 21-24
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.130512.br.001

  • Most Cited Articles
  • Chemical properties of Monodora myristica and its protective potentials against free radicals in vitro
    Ochuko L. Erukainure, Oluwatoyin V. Oke, Folashade O. Owolabi, Funmi O. Kayode, Emmanuel E. Umanhonlen, Muhammad Aliyu
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2012; 1(2): 127-132
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.080712.or.009
    Cited : 12 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Role of free radicals and antioxidants in gynecological cancers: current status and future prospects
    Lokanatha Valluru, Subramanyam Dasari, Rajendra Wudayagiri
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2014; 3(1): 15-26
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.201113.rv.011
    Cited : 10 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Anticancer and free radical scavenging potency of Catharanthus roseus, Dendrophthoe petandra, Piper betle and Curcuma mangga extracts in breast cancer cell lines
    Wahyu Widowati, Tjandrawati Mozef, Chandra Risdian, Yellianty Yellianty
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2013; 2(2): 137-142
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.100413.or.038
    Cited : 10 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Silymarin and naringenin protects nicotine induced oxidative stress in young rats
    Anshu Jain, Nidhi Dwivedi, Rakesh Bhargava, Swaran J.S. Flora
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2012; 1(1): 41-49
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.130412.or.004
    Cited : 9 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Palm vitamin E reduces oxidative stress, and physical and morphological alterations of erythrocyte membranes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats
    Fatmah Ali Matough, Siti Balkis Budin, Zariyantey Abdul Hamid, Santhana Raj Louis, Nasar Alwahaibi, Jamaludin Mohamed
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2012; 1(1): 59-68
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.300412.or.006
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Peroxidative index as novel marker of hydrogen peroxide involvement in lipid peroxidation from coal dust exposure
    Nia Kania, Bambang Setiawan, Edi Widjajanto, Nurdiana Nurdiana, M. Aris Widodo, H.M.S. Chandra Kusuma
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2012; 1(3): 209-215
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.031012.or.020
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant properties of the methanolic extract of fruits of Blighia sapida, Vitellaria paradoxa and Vitex doniana
    Rabiat U. Hamzah, Evans C. Egwim, Adamu Y. Kabiru, Mary B. Muazu
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2013; 2(3): 217-223
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.090513.or.043
    Cited : 8 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Heparin or EDTA; anticoagulant of choice in free radical estimation?
    Kuldeep Mohanty, Swetasmita Mishra, Jhumur Pani, Tarannum Hasan, Abhishek Purohit, Subhadra Sharma, Rima Dada
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2012; 1(1): 21-24
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.130512.br.001
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of marine actinomycetes Streptomyces sp VITSTK7
    Mohankumar Thenmozhi, Krishnan Kannabiran
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2012; 1(1): 51-57
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.270412.or.005
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]

  • Cytotoxic and proapoptotic activities of gallic acid to human oral cancer HSC-2 cells
    Alyssa G. Schuck, Jeffrey H. Weisburg, Hannah Esan, Esther F. Robin, Ayelet R. Bersson, Jordana R. Weitschner, Tova Lahasky, Harriet L. Zuckerbraun, Harvey Babich
    Oxid Antioxid Med Sci. 2013; 2(4): 265-274
    » Abstract & References » doi: 10.5455/oams.220713.or.051
    Cited : 6 times [Click to see citing articles]