Redox signaling associated with thyroid hormone action: perspectives in medical sciences


Luis A. Videla

Redox signaling, as a consequence of thyroid hormone (TH)-induced energy metabolism, triggers adaptive cellular changes to resume homeostasis. In the liver, this is associated with the activation of redox-sensitive transcription factors promoting cell protection and survival, including the upregulation of antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, antiinflammatory, and cell proliferation responses, with concomitant higher energy supply and detoxification potentials. Beneficial effects of THs are also observed in extrahepatic tissues against different types of noxious stimuli evidenced in preclinical studies, as well as in several clinical conditions after restoration of the normal levels of THs. Future additional preclinical and clinical studies are needed in order to validate diagnostic biomarkers and the suitable endpoints to be endorsed, and to solve discrepancies concerning the low number of patients studied and the type of trial and TH protocol employed.